Angela’s presentation is a comparative study (apologies for not being able to reproduce the exact form of the geneological information in part 2):
Angela’s Presentation Notes Part 1
Significance of Female Descent in the Stuart/Jacobite and Hanoverian dynasties.
When writing about the significance of female descent in Middle-earth recently I realised that our real-life royal lines seem to show a similar pattern and wondered whether Tolkien was consciously or unconsciously aware of this. The pattern covers the current ruling line descended from the Hanoverians and the Jacobite line descended from the Stuarts.
These notes refer to the accompanying table, starting with Henry VIII in the top left-hand corner.
Henry VIII’s line died out as all his three children were childless.
However his older sister Margaret had married James Stuart (James IV of Scotland) and this line continued through James V, Mary Queen of Scots and James VI who also became James I of England on the death of the last Tudor monarch (Elizabeth I) in 1603.
Thus the Stuart dynasty became established in England via the female line.
James I was followed by Charles I, Charles II, then James II who was a Catholic King in a strongly Protestant country.
After the birth of a male (and Catholic) heir in 1688 James was driven into exile following the arrival of William of Orange who was married to James’s Protestant daughter Mary.
Thus there were 2 direct lines of descent from James II: a female Protestant line and a male Catholic line. Both would die out in 1 or 2 generations leaving female lines to come to the rescue.
The senior male Jacobite/Catholic line of descent:
This consisted of the Old Pretender or James III depending on your loyalties.
His two sons, Bonnie Prince Charlie and his younger brother Henry, both failed to produce heirs and so the line ended with the death of Henry in 1807.
The female line then took over and the succession passed to the descendants of Henrietta, James II’s sister and the youngest of Charles I’s children. Through her, the Catholic/Jacobite line survives today.
The female Protestant line of descent:
This consisted of James’s daughters, Mary, married to William 3rd Prince of Orange [see** below], and Anne. Neither of them had surviving children and so the line ended with the death of Anne in 1714.
To find a Protestant successor to the British throne it was necessary to go back to the line of Elizabeth of Bohemia, sister of Charles I who had nine children surviving to adulthood.
It was the youngest of these, a daughter Sophia married to the Elector of Hanover, whose son became George I of Great Britain. [The other children were either dead by this time or else were Catholics or nuns or unmarried.] It would have been Sophia herself who succeeded to the British throne if she hadn’t died a few weeks before Anne.]
This line, descended from the youngest daughter of a sister, still survives today.
Some of this is very reminiscent of the Elvish, Númenórean and Rohan dynasties of Middle-earth.
** William was in fact the son of James II’s older sister Mary and William 2nd Prince of Orange.
As a totally unrelated point: I believe it was via a female line that a living descendant of Richard III was discovered thus enabling a DNA test to take place and confirm his identity!
Angela’s Presentation Notes Part 2
Importance of the Appendices to LotR as well as the interesting stories and characters in them.
For example, the story/tragedy of Arvedui “Last King”:
• Prophesied to be the last king of the North Kingdom, but with a chance of reversing/nullifying the prophecy and thus changing his name.
• Hence the failed attempt to claim the throne of Gondor
• Defeat in battle with the Lord of the Nazgûl
• Followed by flight and seeking sanctity in the frozen north
• Ransoming of an heirloom
• Ship wreck
• Failure of the North Kingdom as prophesied
• Involvement of Malbeth the Seer, Círdan and Glorfindel
1st King of ARNOR and GONDOR. Escaped to Middle-earth following drowning of Númenor.
ISILDUR Elder son ANÁRION Younger son
[Kings of North Kingdom] [Kings of South Kingdom]
ONDOHER 31st King
Killed in battle
ARVEDUI 15th King ============================= FÍRIEL ARTAMIR FARAMIR
“Last King” <-Killed in battle->
[KINGS REPLACED BY CHIEFTAINS] [KINGS REPLACED BY STEWARDS]
1st Chieftain of the Dúnedain
ARAGORN 16th Chieftain